El pasado jueves 13 de febrero se celebró la 4ta Sesión de la IV edición del Seminario Migraciones y Refugio que realizan en conjunto la Cátedra de Refugiados y Migrantes Forzosos y el Instituto Universitario de Estudios sobre Migraciones. En esta ocasión tuvo lugar una mesa redonda acerca de “Políticas Públicas de Integración Local”. Para ello, se contó con la presencia de Ekain Larrinaga y José Manuel Álamo.
El pasado jueves 30 de enero tuvo lugar la III Sesión de la IV edición del Seminario Migraciones y Refugio que se realiza desde la Cátedra de Refugiados y Migrantes Forzosos y el Instituto Universitario de Estudios sobre Migraciones. En esta ocasión la ponencia versó sobre Migraciones y Diversidad Religiosa.
El pasado jueves 21 de noviembre la Cátedra de Refugiados y Migrantes Forzosos y el Instituto Universitario de Estudios sobre Migraciones celebró la II sesión de la IV edición del Seminario Migraciones y Refugio.
El pasado jueves 24 de octubre la Cátedra de Refugiados y Migrantes Forzosos y el Instituto Universitario de Estudios sobre Migraciones tuvieron el placer de recibir a Sonia Parella como ponente invitada para la I Sesión del Seminario Sobre Migraciones y Refugio.
On April 4, the fifth session of the Seminar on Migrations and Refuge, organized the panel, entitled ''The rise of xenophobic and anti-immigrant sentiment in Europe; diagnosis, causes and proposals ", that was conducted by three experts: Gonzalo Fanjul (researcher/activist for porCausa), Héctor Cebolla (academic with the UNED) and Sergio García (Caritas Spain).
Last Thursday, March 28, we celebrated the experiences and results of our field-based scholarship recipients in the training space of the Master's Degree in International Development Cooperation of the IUEM. During the session, we were able to hear first-hand accounts of former CID masters, Belén Rico and María Olivera, about their work for the organizations JRS Kenya and Democratic Republic of the Congo, respectively.
On February 21, the fourth session of the Migration and Refuge Seminar took place. The session was organized by the Chair of Refuge and Forced Migration, part the University Institute of Migration Studies of the Pontifical University of Comillas. The paper, entitled '' Three years after refugee ‘crisis’ '', was presented by Ruth Ferrero, senior researcher at ICEI, co-director of GEurasia, and member of the International Migration Studies Group and the European Network of Experts in Labor Migration LINET-IOM
On January 31, the "Migrations and Refuge" Seminar´s third session, of the University Institute of Studies on Migration and the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants, took place at the Pontifical Comillas University. The session was entitled, "Violence towards women and refuge".
On November 28 and 29, the Conference on Immigration and Refuge: “Building host societies” will be held in the Degrees Hall of the School of Economics and Business, University of Murcia (Espinardo Campus). The conference is part of the REFUGIUM program (Refugees Education and Human Rights), and organized jointly with the Reflected Project II of the Cepaim Foundation.
On November 22, the second session of the Seminar on Migrations and Refuge, organized by the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants and the University Institute for Migration Studies of the Pontifical University of Comillas, took place. The paper, entitled '' Conflict or coexistence? Challenges of social integration policies at the local level at the present time ", was written by Gemma Pinyol-Jiménez, Director of Migratory Policies and Diversity at Instrategies and Associate Researcher at GRITIM-UPF.
On Monday, November 5, the Pontifical University of Comillas hosted the event ''30 years of deaths in the Strait' 'at its headquarters of Alberto Aguilera. The event was organized by the integration organization, Andalucía Acoge and the journalism network and migrations, porCausa, in collaboration with the University Institute for Migration Studies (IUEM).
On October 25, the third edition of the Seminar on Forced Migration and Refuge began its 2018/2019 academic year, organized by the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants and the University Institute for Migration Studies of the Pontifical University of Comillas.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is one of the territories most affected by the current migratory crisis, whose internal conflict has caused the displacement of 5 million people (internally and as refugees), the majority of them women. During displacement, these women live through situations of extreme vulnerability and violence, and often find themselves deprived of fundamental human rights.
Last Tuesday, October 13, the International Network of Lawyers Eureka conducted a workshop focused on the current realities of Venezuelan migrants, entitled "Legal Analysis the National Court Hearing on Refuge as Applies to the Venezuelan Residence.” The workshop was held in the Illustrious Bar Association of Madrid. The event was organized by Eureka Network, a group of legal specialists with a focus on defending fundamental rights and the aim of offering a better service to citizens.
Juan Iglesias, doctor in sociology and Director of the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants of IUEM undertook a research fellowship in the Oxford Department of International Development, at the Refugee Studies Center during the period of April 29th to July 2nd
Over 2.8 million people have applied for international protection, awaiting decisions of their refugee status, i.e. asylum seekers. Germany, with more than 720,000 requests for asylum, continued to be the main receptor of almost 2 million applications for first time asylum seekers lodged in 2016; the United States followed Germany with 262,000 and then Italy with 123,000 requests.
OXFAM Intermon presented its latest report in Comillas, titled “Origin, Transit and Return”, which took place in García Polavieja Hall. The event, planned as an open, round table discussion, relied on the contributions of representatives from the media, civil society, and university members as well as scholars. The event was moderated by Gonzalo Fanjul (Por Causa)
From July 2nd-4th, IMISCOE held its 15th annual Conference “Europe, migrations and the Mediterranean: human mobility and intercultural challenges”, organized by the University of Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona.
Our coworker Ángela Ordóñez, pre-doctoral researcher for the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants, in collaboration with the Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) of Portugal, facilitated the psychological intervention for possible processes of pardon in refugees. The sessions were carried out in the Refugee Welcome Center of Lisbon (CATR) where a team from JRS handled the first welcome.
1,042 total people have passed through Aragon within the Program of Welcome and Integration for applicants and beneficiaries of international protection, a program from the Ministry of Employment and Social Security managed by different entities in this Community (ACCEM, Red Cross, CEPAIM, APIP-ACAM and the Evangelical Spanish Church).
This conference, organized by the Federation of Entities and Centers for the Integration and Help of Marginalized People (FACIAM), took place in the P. Pérez del Pulgar room in Comillas Pontifical University.
The presentation took place in the Europe Room of the Senate of the General Courts (la Sala Europa in the Cámara Alta of the Cortes Generales), where representatives from the SJM organization, JRS Europa and Pueblos Unidos presented the report. In this fashion, diverse organizations from the civil society and political actors attended the event.
Jesús Romero Trillo was in charge of the last conference of the 2017/18 academic year from the seminary of the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants-Inditex.
The conference had the participation of the Coordinator of the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants, Cecilia Estrada Villaseñor, presenting the work, “¿Acoger sin integrar?” (“To accept without to include?”).
The act had the participation of Cecilia Estrada, Coordinator of the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants and co-author of the report; Josep Buades, sj from the Claver Association-SJM, Director of Jesuit Services to Migrants and also co-author of the report; and Encarnación La Spina, investigator from the University of Deusto.
The initiative takes inspiration from the walks carried out by Jesuit Father Frans van der Lugt in Syria with people of different religions and nationalities in order to create a space to encounter other cultures.
In the following infographic, you can compare the number of arrivals to Europe in general and through the main routes that pass through Spain, Italy and Greece.
Through the data provided by CEAR, we can verify that there were 3,120 applicants for asylum in Spain, which signifies a 97.5% increase from the year before. This data represents a record number of asylum applications in Spain since registration began.
The event took place with the participation of Juan Iglesias, Director of the Cátedra de Refugiados y Migrantes Forzosos; Miguel González sj, Director of the Servicio Jesuita al Migrante; Gorka Urrutia, Director of the Institute of Human Rights at the Universidad de Deusto; Trinidad Vicente co-author of the report; and Encarnación La Spina researcher from the Universidad de Deusto.
According to the data published in Eurostat, the EU received 705,705 applications for asylum in the last year, which is 44% less than in 2016. However, this figure is still higher than all data collected before 2015 when there was a record number of asylum applications.
The interview was held within the XI Week of Poverty and Exclusion organized by the diocesan Cáritas of Asidonia-Jerez held from 12 to 14 March.
Yolanda Candil is a Technician in the Area of Migration and Equal Treatment-Ombudsman, while Clara Collado is the Program Manager and Deputy to la Dirección de ACCEM, and Ramón Palomino is the Director of the Cabinet of the Government Department of Equity, Social Rights and Employment of the Madrid City Council.
It was the seventh edition of this cycle of conferences in which our director presented, “¿Crisis de refugiados o crisis del sistema de protección internacional? The case of the EU and Spain in 2015.”
In the seminar, titled “Psychological trauma in Latin American Refugees and Economic Migrants”, Dr. Rosenfeld analyzed the psychological consequences of forced displacement in migrants and refugees in Latin America.
One month after publication, the presenters involved reflected the three types of actors involved in the reception of refugees: the autonomous administration, an NGO participating in the reception system through an agreement with the State, and a citizen platform involved in hospitality from outside the reception system.
In the interview, our Director presented results from the most recent research report out of the Cátedra de Refugiados y Migrantes Forzosos: “Acoger sin integrar?” This research details the positive and negative aspects that exist in the refugee reception and integration policies in Spain.
Transatlantic Studies Network is a scientific and academic essay and dissemination magazine that publishes online and in print on a semester basis. It is edited by the Aula María Zambrano de Estudios Transatlánticos and by the Grupo de Estudios sobre Comunicación y Sociedad de la Información (E-COM).
The event took place in Brussels on 1 February under the theme “Conflict and Compromise between Law and Politics in EU Migration and Asylum Policies.” This theme was particularly relevant due to multiple sentences last year from the Court of Justice of the European Union involving extremely sensitive cases.
Entitled “Ruanda se reconcilia”, the authors outline the various reconciliation initiatives they encountered. After the genocide in 1994, in which 800,000 people died and 350,000 women were raped, the Rwandan society began carrying out reconciliation and gender equality processes (it now has the highest number of women in parliament).
The EID continues to develop and organize various interdisciplinary seminars for the doctoral students every year to expose them to research occurring in different fields. The goal, therefore, is to encourage an interdisciplinary approach and adaptation to the different demands of society.
The event took place in the P. García Polavieja lecture hall at the Universidad Pontificia and included representatives from the Cátedra de Refugiados y Migrantes Forzosos, the Fundación Entreculturas and two university students who completed this program during their first year in JRS Cameroon and JRS Democratic Republic of the Congo.
This event involved the participation of representatives from the following institutions: Servicio Jesuita al Migrante, Instituto de Derechos Humanos Pedro Arrupe of the Universidad de Deusto and the Catedra de Refugiados y Migrantes Forzosos from the Universidad Pontificia de Comillas, who have developed the aforementioned investigation.
María Prieto, a psychology professor from the Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, and Ángela Ordóñez, a researcher from the Cátedra de Refugiados y Migrantes Forzosos, are collaborating on a research project entitled “Reconciliación Ignaciana Transdisciplinar” and were invited to Rwanda to study initiatives developed in the country since the genocide in 1994 to promote processes of forgiveness and reconciliation.
With a total of 31,700 applications for protection, last year surpassed 2016 which had only 16,544 applications, making 2017 the highest year of applications since the asylum law passed in 1984.
Josep Lobera was in charge of a new seminar day at the Cátedra de Refugiados y Migrantes Forzosos-Inditex. Lobera is a professor in the Sociology Department at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Tufts University-Skidmore College, and co-editor of the Revista Española de Sociología.
D. Julio L. Martínez, the Rector of the Universidad Pontificia Comillas, and D. Manuel Bretón Romero, President of Cáritas Española, have signed a Framework Agreement of collaboration between the two institutions and the first Specific Agreement of collaboration for the development of a relevant research project about the integration of the immigrant and refugee populations in Spain.
In relation to this meeting, the following infographic outlines the agreements that the European Union has realized regarding the relocation of refugees in the last two years.
This document analyses the conditions of social integration of the refugee population between 2012 and 2016 based on qualitative research data.
The seminar was led by Gonzalo Sánchez-Terán, Deputy Director of Humanitarian Programs at the Institute of International Humanitarian Affairs at Fordham University in New York. Sánchez-Terán teaches humanitarian work and geopolitics classes at multiple universities in Spain including Comillas (Madrid), Deusto (Bilbao) and Internacional de Cataluña (Barcelona).
In the following infographic you can learn facts on refugees and asylum applicants, their characteristics of gender and nationality during the first months of the current year. In the same manner, data is offered on the resolutions of asylums made in the year 2016.
In the article they can read the data and numbers that describe the scene in which refugees are encountering living in our country, the programs, and policies that are being given to respond to their situation.
This past 21st of November, the presentation on the of the FRA took place in the Meeting hall of the Universidad. Pontifica Comillas. The function was told with the participation of those responsible of the annual report: Michael Beis and the member of the governing board for Spain, Alejandro Saiz Arnaiz.
In this edition, the presentation was led by Cristina Manzanedo (Entreculturas), who is an expert in migrations and since last year, coordinated the work of global migrations of the Intercultures foundation. This Jesuit NGO, for international cooperation for the development, creates a broad work with displaced communities, migrants, and refugees in Africa, Latin America and the Middle East; and since Spain has undergone campaigns to transform and to sensitize on this reality and promote a global citizenship.
From the 6th to the 17th of November the U.N. conference on climate change (COP23) was held in Bonn, Germany. With the main objective to propel climate action to stop global warming and have a sustainable future.
Finally, in the last of the questions that were created in the poll done by the Pew Research Center, intends to give a response to the growing opinion of accusing refugees of homicides that occur in Europe by other social groups. For this, the study asked the following question: Are refugees more likely to commit crimes that occur within our country than other groups?
Terrorism is not the only worry that European citizens have in relation with the arrival of refugees, therefore, the poll performed by the Pew Research Center created other questions. In this second infographic we analyzed the second question asked: Do you believe that refugee steal our jobs and social services?
A poll done by the Pew Research Center shows the opinions of citizens of ten countries of the European Unions about refugees, through various questions. In this infographic first we analyzed the first question, “do you believe that the arrival of refugees creates a rise in the risk of suffering terrorist attacks?”
This past 3rd of October 2017 the European Tribunal of Human Rights of Strasburg on the case of N.D. and N.T. against Spain, compelling the Spanish government to economically compensate these two people that crossed the Morocco-Melilla border in an irregular fashion and were immediately expulsed back to Moroccan territory, against their wills.
This assembly took place amongst the days of 29th, 30th, and 31st of October, in which the Catedra de Refugiados y Migrantes Forzosos participated as part of the Instituto Universitario de Estudios sobre Migraciones (IUEM) Studies of the Universidad Pontificia de Comillas.
This past 14th of October the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants, patroned by INDITEX, together with the Institute of Human Rights of the University of Duesto and the Jesuit Service to Migrants of Spain brought together a work table with experts.
Poverty is a factor inextricably linked with migration, given that thousands of forced migrants and refugees flee from the misery of their environments. The objective of this day is to promote within organizations, movements, and general society a greater awareness about the importance of eradicating poverty and destitution in the world.
Currently there is a lot of talk going on about migration, but do you know why they say there are forced migrants? In this infographic we show you the principal causes by which this group of people abandon their surroundings.
Last 26th of September marked the end of the time frame that Spain had agreed upon for the relocation of 17,337 refugees that have been in Italy and Greece.
13th Conference of the Spanish Association of Political Science and of the Administration/Government (AECPA) was held from the 20th to the 22nd of September in the University of Santiago de Compostela.
Last Saturday, July 15, the working session was held at the headquarters of the Episcopal Conference of the "Forum on Human Mobility and its Religious Dimension", which has as its theme this year the study of migrant minors and the Refugee Chair And Forced Migrants was present.
Central Americans who are forced to flee extreme violence in Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador are being doubly victimized along the migration route to Mexico and the United States, according to a report by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) We invite you to see our infographics.
IMISCOE is the oldest network of academics in the area of migration and integration, formed by 39 institutions and more than 500 academics, their main target are comparative research, publications, the organization of events, doctorate training, prizes, and communication.
The course of the past 28th on the refugee crisis in the Menéndez Pelayo University experts on migration and asylum policy served to provide a global perspective of the crisis and criticize the miniscule Spanish response and its refusal to honour the commitment of host, a message that has been broadcast by the media of communication within days.
On Wednesday, June 28 the course "Crisis of refugees or crisis of European migration policy?" of the Menéndez Pelayo International University (in Santander), took place in which several experts in migration were placed at three round tables to provide a global perspective on the so-called refugee crisis.
The Maria Zambrano Transatlantic Classroom Studies UMA-ATECH (Malaga) held the Fourth International Workshop of transatlantic studies, titled "Exile, Migration, Asylum and Forced Displacement", which featured presentations by academics and researchers from Spain and Latin America. Cristina Gortázar, Professor at the Universidad Pontificia Comillas and member of the Advisory Board of the Department of refugees and forced migrants of the University also took part.
This Friday, Alberto Ares, a researcher at Comillas University and a member of the Council of the Refugee and Forced Migrants Chair, will be at the Book Fair signing his book La Rueca Migratoria, weaving stories and experiences of integration, from Comillas Publications.
From July 3 to July 7, the Universidad Complutense de Madrid plans launch its course titled "Asylum and refugee policy, the challenge of the EU", within its program of Summer Courses of El Escorial. This is a course in which the municipalities of Madrid, Barcelona and Zaragoza have collaborated and address the migratory and refugee crisis that is taking place at the gates of Europe in addition to the institutional responses of both the European Union and Of local organizations or the media.
The article, The protection of the refugees for the cause of the war and the response of the European Union, published in april of 2017, assesses whether the official protection of refugees from conflict countries is effective and sufficient by analyzing the mistakes made by the European Union and its Member States when addressing the so-called 2015 refugee crisis.
It is clear that the experience of forcibly leaving the country affects the mental health of the refugee, but thanks to reports such as the one carried out by Médecins Sans Frontières with refugees in Italy, entitled Asylum seekers in Italy: an analysis of mental health distress and access to healthcare, we can see to what extent.
The researcher of the University Institute of Studies on Migration (IUEM) of the Pontifical University Comillas, María José Castaño Reyero, will participate in the conferences of the 2017 Summer School Migration in Southern Europe: Solidarity, Crisis and beyond, carried out by the European Public Law Organization and will take place at its headquarters in Sounion, Greece.
The Comilla´s University Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants held the seventh session of his seminar with the lecture entitled "Geographies of Aid: Spaces of Humanitarian Aid in Mexico", event that was run by Alejandro Olayo of the Department of International Development Oxford (ODID), whose line of research is focused on migration across Latin America.
Next June 28, the International Menéndez Pelayo University course entitled Crisis of refugees or crisis of European migration policy? will take place. This course will be directed by Miguel González (director of SJM-Spain), Valeria Méndez de Vigo (Entreculturas) and Juan Iglesias, director of the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants of the Universidad Pontificia Comillas.
The Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants has celebrated the 6th session of its Seminar with a conference titled "Youth in the periphery of Paris and Madrid. The role of social and ethnical networks in the adaptation of the sons of muslim migrants".
If you have wondered in which countries are the most forced to leave their homes, we present this map with a graphical representation of the number of refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons, returnees and stateless persons that have generated the worst conflicts in the world today.
On March 2 we attended a seminar on the role of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights in the protection of refugees and forced migrants, which took place at the Comillas Pontifical University.
The researcher from the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants, Nuria Ferré, collaborates with the Jesuit Migrant Service providing technical and legal support for their work in the Southern Border.
On February 17th and 18th, the First International Congress on Human Rights: “The Rights of Refugees and the Responsibilities of Europe” will take place in Valencia. A meeting where themes like The European Common Asylum System, the Geneva Convention, and the rights of minors in refugee situations will be addressed.
Photojournalist and winner of a Pulitzer Prize, Javier Bauluz, said at the conference, “Refugee, Empathy, and Xenophobia,” at Comillas Pontifical University on February 8, 2017. In the chat, presented by Cristina Gortázar and Adam Dubin organized by the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants and the Santander Chair of Law and Minors, Bauluz presented an exhibition of his photographic work with refugees and spoke of the importance of empathy when it comes to understanding and telling a reality like that of the migratory crisis.
The Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants is participating at the Odysseus Annual Conference in Brussels with researcher in formation Nuria Ferré this year. The event, which will take place on Friday February 10, 2017, meets every year with experts from all over the continent about subjects of migratory rights, like laws of asylum and European policies.
The fouth session of the Seminar of the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants took place las February the 2nd, when researcher Blanca Gracés (CIDOB-Barcelona Centre for International Affairs) spoke about "The Spanish Asylum System: Reception in Limbo", and where she described the current situation in the refugee camps and borders.
By photojournalist Javier Bauluz, journalist, Pulitzer Prize in Journalism in 1995 and Journalism and Human Rights Award 2008. On February 8 | 12: 30 | Lecture Hall of the Pontifical University Comillas. Alberto Aguilera 23.
Last December, the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants of Comillas University started its proffesional paid internships program with refugees. It last 12 months and will take place in different parts of Spain and the African continent.
According to United Nations, 21 milliones of people are victims of trafficking, of which one in three are children. UNICEF focuses on the case of Spanish in order to ellaborate a report about the underage victimos trafficked on the country, in which they have collaborated with the University Institute of Studies on Migration of the Comillas Pontifical University.
Last Monday, the social center Pueblos Unidos offered a language course for immigrants and refugees for the second time, an initiative carried out by four volunteer teachers who have taught Spanish level A2 to 18 participants of different backgrounds.
With the aim of analysing the causes and challenges that are raised in the migratory phenomenon, Comillas University ICAI-ICADE has carried out the event "Minor migrants, Vulnerable and Voiceless", within the framework of the World Day of Migrations.
The José María Martín Patino Chair of Culture of the Meeting has produced the 2016 Spain Report, presented on December 19th. The third chapter, carried out by the Chair of Refugees and Forced migrants of Comillas University, is dedicated to the refugee crisis in Europe, the "worst since World War II", as well as the authentic "crisis of migratory government" that it has brought to the European continent.
The Technical Seminar "Refugees Rights, Responses from the Local Level", organized by the Area of Government of Equity, Social Rights and Employment, attended by members of International Amnesty, UNHCR, university entities and the Spanish Network of Immigration and Refugee Assistance, among others, took place in Madrid on December 19, 2016.
The presentation of the "Spain 2016 Report" by the Encuentro Foundation, an event in which will participate Juan Iglesias, the Director of the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants, Cristina Mandanedo, lawyer and a member of Entreculturas Foundation, and Gonzalo Fanjul (co-founder of porCausa fundation), in order to present the chapter "The refugee crisis in Europe", will take place next Monday December 19.
In the article, “It´s not a Passing Population Anymore,” published in El País, Juan Iglesias, Director of the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants of Comillas Pontifical University, denounces the lack of social integration policies against the concentration of immigrants in impoverished neighborhoods, the precariousness, and the upsurge of xenophobia.
Last Friday, the Academic Conference "Refugees: Reality and Challenges" took place at the Rey Juan Carlos University, which consisted of three discussion tables explaining the current situation of this humanitarian drama and the different European policies aimed at solving it.
Thursday, the third seminar “De Facto Refugees” was held in the in the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants of Comillas University, to debate about the concept and the situations of refugees today.
Researcher from the Chair of Refugees and Forced Migrants, Ángela Ordóñez Carabaño, is currently completing a doctoral fellowship at the Harvard University School of Public Health, and is collaborating with the Research Program on Childhood and Global Adversity, on the project "Addressing the Mental Health Disparities of Refugee Minors: Community-Based Research."
Academic Days will take place at King Juan Carlos University and they will have the objective of analysis of the reality of refugees in their cross of the Mediterranean, especially between 2015 and 2016, and the policies designed and implemented in this regard.
“Conversations in Criticism III: Europe, where are you going?”, a meeting in which the current debate in Europe on several political, social, and humanitarian aspects, will take place on November 14, 2016. It is intended to address themes such as compliance in the protection of human rights on the part of the European authorities, the scenario of uncertainty after “Brexit” and the role of society and the Catholic Church.